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66 Participles: Aorist Active; Middle and Passive

A dedicatory plaque, likely to ΗΡΩΙ ΙΑΤΡΩΙ, the Hero Physician. 3rd-2nd c. B.C. Athenian Agora Excavations.

 


First Aorist Active Participle

 

The pattern to form the FIRST AORIST ACTIVE participle is:

  • verb stem + σαντ + 3-1-3 adjective endings

Predictable sound changes yield the following endings for the nominative singular of first aorist active participles:

  • Masculine: (-σαντς→-σανς→) –σας
  • Feminine: (-σαντσα→-σανσα→) –σασα
  • Neuter: (-σαντ→) –σαν

In other words, to form the first aorist active participle, add σας, σασα, σαν to the verb stem. As with present active participles:

  • A σ is added before the 1st declension endings for the FEMININE
  • 1st declension endings for the FEMININE are  in the nom. and acc. sing.
  • The persistent accent is on the LAST VOWEL SOUND of the VERB STEM.

Finally, remember that only past tense INDICATIVE verbs receive an AUGMENT. Participles, like infinitives, receive no augment.

First Aorist Active Participle of λύω loosen (S 306; GPH, p. 191)

M  F  N
Nominative λύσας λύσασα λῦσαν
Genitive λύσαντος λυσάσης λύσαντος
κτλ    
Note the similarities between the first aorist active participle and the adjective πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν.

 


Second Aorist Active Participle: Thematic

 

The pattern to form the SECOND AORIST ACTIVE participle is:

  • verb stem + ντ + 3-1-3 adjective endings

If the SECOND AORIST is THEMATIC, sound changes yield endings identical with the nominative singular of thematic present active participles:

    • Masculine: (-οντς→-ονς→) –ων
    • Feminine: (-οντσα→-ονσα→) –ουσα
    • Neuter: (-οντ→) –ον

There are two differences between the PRESENT ACTIVE and SECOND AORIST THEMATIC participles:

  • Stem
    • The PRESENT uses the PRESENT TENSE stem
    • The SECOND AORIST uses the VERB stem
  • Accent
    • The PRESENT accents the LAST VOWEL SOUND of the TENSE STEM
    • The SECOND AORIST accents the THEMATIC VOWEL sound

In other words, to form the second aorist active thematic participle, add –ών  –οῦσαόν to the verb stem.

Second Aorist Active Participle of λαμβάνω take (S 305a; GPH, p. 193)

M  F  N
Nominative λαβών λαβοῦσα λαβόν
Genitive λαβόντος λαβούσης λαβόντος
κτλ    

 


Second Aorist Active Participle: Athematic

 

Athematic (-μι) second aorist verbs have no thematic vowel before the ντ marker. The result is the following pattern:

  • verb stem + ντ + 3-1-3 adjective endings

As with present active athematic participles, predictable sound changes yield the following endings for the nominative singular of athematic present active participles:

  • Masculine: (-ντς→-νς→) –ς
  • Feminine: (-ντσα→-νσα→) –σα
  • Neuter: (-ντ→) –ν

In other words, for athematic verbs, simply add ς, σα, ν as an ending to the verb stem. Note that for δίδωμι, τίθημι, ἵστημι, and ἵημι, the AORIST ACTIVE participle is identical with the PRESENT ACTIVE participle except for the REDUPLICATION in the present: διδούς/δούς, τιθείς/θείς, ἱστάς/στάς, ἱείς/εἵς.

 

Aorist Active Participle of δίδωμι give (S 307, 416; GPH, p. 206)

M  F  N
Nominative δούς δοῦσα δόν
Genitive δόντος δούσης δόντος
κτλ    

 

Aorist Active Participle of τίθημι place, make (S 307, 416; GPH, p. 214)

M  F  N
Nominative θείς θεῖσα θέν
Genitive θέντος θείσης θέντος
κτλ    

 

Recall that ἵστημι has two aorists; the FIRST AORIST is TRANSITIVE, and the SECOND AORIST is INTRANSITIVE. Both aorists have their own participial forms:

First Aorist Active Participle of ἵστημι stand (S 306)

M  F  N
Nominative στήσας στήσασα στῆσαν
Genitive στήσαντος στησάσης στήσαντος
κτλ    

Second Aorist Active Participle of ἵστημι stand (S 307, 416; GPH, p. 210)

M  F  N
Nominative στάς στᾶσα στάν
Genitive στάντος στάσης στάντος
κτλ    

 

Aorist Active Participle of ἵημι throw (S 777)

M  F  N
Nominative εἵς εἷσα ἕν
Genitive ἕντος εἵσης ἕντος
κτλ    


Summary of the Active Voice

 

To summarize, the patterns to form participles in the active voice are as follows:

Present Tense

  • Athematic: present stem + ντ + 3-1-3 adjective endings
  • Thematic: present stem + οντ + 3-1-3 adjective endings

Future Tense

  • All Verbs: verb stem + σ + οντ + 3-1-3 adjective endings

Aorist Tense

  • First Aorist: verb stem + σα + ντ + 3-1-3 adjective endings
  • Second Aorist Thematic: verb stem + οντ + 3-1-3 adjective endings
  • Second Aorist Athematic: verb stem + ντ + 3-1-3 adjective endings

 


Participles: Middle Voice

 

Middle Participles

The pattern for ALL PARTICIPLES in the MIDDLE voice is:

  • tense stem + μεν + 2-1-2 adjective endings

In other words, to form the PRESENT, FUTURE, or AORIST middle participle:

  • simply add –μενοςμένημενον to the appropriate tense stem
  • thematic (-ω) verbs add an –ο before these endings: –όμενοςομένηόμενον

The ACCENT for all middle participles:

  • recedes to the ANTEPENULT when possible

 

Present Middle Thematic Participles

  • λύω (S 383; GPH p. 187)
    • λυόμενος λυομένη λυόμενον

Future Middle Participles

  • λύω (S 383; GPH p. 189)
    • λυσόμενος λυσομένη λυσόμενον

Middle Participles: Athematic Verbs

  • δείκνυμι (S 418; GPH p. 217)
    • Present: δεικνύμενος -η -ον
  • δίδωμι (S 416; GPH pp. 205, 207)
    • Present: διδόμενος -η –ον
    • Aorist: δόμενος -η –ον
  • τίθημι (S 416; GPH pp. 213, 215)
    • Present: τιθέμενος -η -ον
    • Aorist: θέμενος -η –ον
  • ἵστημι (S 416; GPH p. 209)
    • Present: ἱστάμενος -η -ον
    • Aorist: none
  • ἵημι (S 777)
    • Present: ἱέμενος -η -ον
    • Aorist: ἕμενος -η –ον
Note that for δίδωμι, τίθημι, ἵστημι, and ἵημι, the short vowel sound of their respective stems is used throughout their middle voice forms.

 

Middle Participles: First Aorist

  • λύω (S 383; GPH p. 192)
    • λυσάμενος λυσαμένη λυσάμενον

Middle Participles: Second Aorist Thematic

  • λαμβάνω (S 384; GPH p. 194)
    • λαβόμενος λαβομένη λαβόμενον

 


Aorist Passive Participle

 

Recall that the marker –θη– means an AORIST is PASSIVE or INTRANSITIVE. In the participle, the –η– shortens to –ε-. As a result, the pattern for the AORIST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE is:

  • verb stem + θε + ντ + 3-1-3 adjective endings

Sound changes yield the following endings for the NOMINATIVE SINGULAR of AORIST PASSIVE participles:

  • Masculine: (-θεντς→-θενς→) –θείς
  • Feminine: (-θεντσα→-θενσα→) –θεῖσα
  • Neuter: (-θεντ→) –θέν

Note that the persistent ACCENT remains on the –ε– sound. In other words, to form the aorist passive participle, add –θείςθεῖσαθέν to the verb stem.

Aorist Passive Participle of λύω loosen (S 383; GPH p. 195)

M  F  N
Nominative λυθεῖς λυθεῖσα λυθέν
Genitive λυθέντος λυθείσης λυθέντος
κτλ    

 

– τὸ τέλος –

 


Key Terms and Concepts

  • FIRST AORIST ACTIVE PARTICIPLES
  • SECOND AORIST ACTIVE PARTICIPLES
  • MIDDLE PARTICIPLES
  • AORIST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES

Exercises

Ι. Fill in the blank.

1. FIRST AORIST ACTIVE participles are formed according to the following pattern:

  • ______ stem + ______+ ______ adjective endings
    •  ______ declension endings for the MASCULINE and NEUTER
    •  ______ declension endings for the FEMININE (- ______ in the nom. and acc. sing.)

Predictable sound changes yield the following endings for the nominative singular:

  • Masculine: (-σαντς→-σανς→) – ______
  • Feminine: (-σαντσα→-σανσα→) – ______
  • Neuter: (-σαντ→) – ______

 

2. For thematic SECOND AORIST ACTIVE participles, the thematic vowel ______ is added before the ______  marker, producing the following pattern:

  • ______ stem +  ______ + ______ adjective endings

Predictable sound changes yield the following endings for the nominative singular:

  • Masculine: (-οντς→-ονς→) – ______
  • Feminine: (-οντσα→-ονσα→) – ______
  • Neuter: (-οντ→) – ______

There are two differences between thematic PRESENT and SECOND AORIST ACTIVE participles:

  • Stem
    • The PRESENT uses the ____________ stem
    • The SECOND AORIST uses the ____________ stem
  • Accent
    • The PRESENT accents the ____________ of the ____________
    • The SECOND AORIST accents the ____________ sound

 

3. For athematic SECOND AORIST ACTIVE participles, no thematic vowel is added before the ______ marker. Predictable sound changes yield the following endings for the nominative singular:

  • Masculine: (-ντς→-νς→) –______
  • Feminine: (-ντσα→-νσα→) –______
  • Neuter: (-ντ→) –______

For δίδωμι, τίθημι, ἵστημι, and ἵημι, the AORIST ACTIVE participle is identical with the PRESENT ACTIVE participle except for the ____________ in the present.

 

4. The pattern for ALL PARTICIPLES in the MIDDLE voice is:

  • ______ stem + ______ + ______ adjective endings

 

5. The pattern for the AORIST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE is:

  • ______ stem + ______ + ______ + ______ adjective endings

 

ΙΙ. Declining.

1. Provide the NOMINATIVE and GENITIVE SINGULAR, in all genders, of the AORIST MIDDLE and AORIST PASSIVE participle of κελεύω, κελεύσω, ἐκέλευσα order.

2. Provide the NOMINATIVE and GENITIVE SINGULAR, in all genders, of the PRESENT MIDDLE and AORIST ACTIVE participle of λαμβάνω, λήψομαι, ἔλαβον take, receive.

 

III. For each of the participial forms, identify the tense, voice, gender, number, and case. Note that there may be more than one possibility for each category.

  1. θύσας
  2. διδόμενον
  3. λιπόντες
  4. δόντας
  5. ἱστάμενος
  6. παυθέντας
  7. λεγόμενα
  8. θεμένη
  9. φυσαμένῳ
  10. κωλυθέντων

 

 

 

License

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Participles: Aorist Active; Middle and Passive by Wilfred E. Major and Michael Laughy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.