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46 Reading Passages: Classical

Reading Passages

 

Assignment

1. Read the passages aloud in Greek.

2. Vocabulary and commentary is provided for each passage. For words that do not appear in the vocabulary, please use your dictionary.

3. Translate the passages. As you translate the sentences, pay careful attention to words that go together, such as prepositional phrases and relative clauses. Breaking the sentences up into logical units is oftentimes a better first approach than attempting to translate all the words in succession.

To download this assignment as a pdf, click here: AGE Readings 15b.

 

Classical Reading

This passage comes from Xenophon’s famous expedition with the Ten Thousand. The group is marching north toward the Black Sea and they have been preparing to make a night entry into the territory of a local tribe called the Carduchians. A Greek named Cherisophus has just started leading one contingent over mountains toward Carduchian territory:

…Ξενοφῶν δὲ σὺν τοῖς ὀπισθοφύλαξιν ὁπλίταις εἵπετο οὐδένα ἔχων γυμνῆτα· οὐδεὶς γὰρ κίνδυνος ἐδόκει εἶναι … τις ἄνω πορευομένων ἐκ τοῦ ὄπισθεν ἐπίσποιτο. καὶ ἐπὶ μὲν τὸ ἄκρον ἀναβαίνει Χειρίσοφος πρίν τινας αἰσθέσθαι τῶν πολεμίων· ἔπειτα δ’ ὑφηγεῖτο· ἐφείπετο δὲ ἀεὶ τὸ ὑπερβάλλον τοῦ στρατεύματος εἰς τὰς κώμας τὰς ἐν τοῖς ἄγκεσί τε καὶ μυχοῖς τῶν ὀρέων. ἔνθα δὴ οἱ μὲν Καρδοῦχοι ἐκλιπόντες τὰς οἰκίας ἔχοντες καὶ γυναῖκας καὶ παῖδας ἔφευγον ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη. τὰ δὲ ἐπιτήδεια πολλὰ ἦν λαμβάνειν, ἦσαν δὲ καὶ χαλκώμασι παμπόλλοις κατεσκευασμέναι αἱ οἰκίαι, ὧν οὐδὲν ἔφερον οἱ Ἕλληνες, οὐδὲ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐδίωκον, ὑποφειδόμενοι, εἴ πως ἐθελήσειαν οἱ Καρδοῦχοι διιέναι αὐτοὺς ὡς διὰ φιλίας τῆς χώρας, ἐπείπερ βασιλεῖ πολέμιοι ἦσαν· τὰ μέντοι ἐπιτήδεια ὅτῳ τις ἐπιτυγχάνοι ἐλάμβανεν· ἀνάγκη γὰρ ἦν. οἱ δὲ Καρδοῦχοι οὔτε καλούντων ὑπήκουον οὔτε ἄλλο φιλικὸν οὐδὲν ἐποίουν. ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ τελευταῖοι τῶν Ἑλλήνων κατέβαινον εἰς τὰς κώμας ἀπὸ τοῦ ἄκρου ἤδη σκοταῖοι…τότε δὴ συλλεγέντες τινὲς τῶν Καρδούχων τοῖς τελευταίοις ἐπετίθεντο, καὶ ἀπέκτεινάν τινας καὶ λίθοις καὶ τοξεύμασι κατέτρωσαν, ὀλίγοι ὄντες·

Anabasis 4.1.6-10

 

ἄγκος -ους τό bend, valley

ἀεὶ always

αἰσθέσθαι ~ αἰσθάνεσθαι

ἄκρον –ου τό peak, top

ἄλλο –ου τό other

ἄνω up

ἀπέκτεινάν (3rd p. pl. indic. act.) killed

γυμνής -ῆτος ὁ light infantry soldier

δή now

διίημι (διά +ἵημι) let through

ἐθελήσειαν (3rd pl. act.) “might have been willing” < ἐθέλω

εἵπετο (3rd sg. imperfect indic. mid.) < ἕπομαι follow

εἶτα then

ἐκλιπών -όντος ὁ abandoning, leaving behind

Ἕλλην -ηνος ὁ Greek

ἔνθα there

ἐπείπερ ~ ἐπεί

ἔπειτα then

ἐπετίθεντο (3rd p. pl. imperfect indic. mid.) < ἐπιτίθημι set on, i.e. attack

ἐπίσποιτο (3rd sg indic) would pursue

ἐπιτήδεια –ων τά provisions

ἐπιτυγχάνοι ~ ἐπιτυγχάνει happen to find

ἐφείπετο (3rd sg imperfect indic mid.) < ἐφέπομαι follow after, pursue

ἔχων –οντος ὁ having, holding, with

ἤδη already

καλῶν –οῦντος ὁ one who is calling

Καρδοῦχος –ου ὁ Carduchian

κατεσκευασμένη –ης ἡ equipped, furnished

κατέτρωσαν (3rd p. pl. indic. act.) severely wounded

κώμη -ης ἠ village

μέντοι however

μυχός –ου ὁ nook

Ξενοφῶν –ῶντος ὁ Xenophon

ὀλίγος ου ὁ few

ὄντες (masc. pl.) while being

ὀπισθοφύλαξ –ακος ὁ rear guard

ὄπισθεν behind

ὁπλίτης -ου ὁ heavy infantry soldier

ὅτῳ ~ ᾧτινι

παμπόλλοις (neut. dat. pl.) whole lots

πολλά (neut. nom./acc. pl.) many, much

πορευόμενος –ου ὁ marching

πως somehow

σκοταῖος –ου ὁ in the dark

στράτευμα -ματος army, division

συλλεγέντες (masc. nom. pl.) having gathered together

τελευταῖος –ου ὁ last

τότε then

τόξευμα, ατος τό arrow

ὑπακούω listen to, obey (+ gen. or dat.)

ὑπερβάλλον –οντος τό crossing over

ὑποφειδόμενος –ου ὁ sparing a little, refraining from harshness

ὑφηγεῖτο (3rd sg imperfect indic mid.) < ὑφηγέομαι lead steadily

φιλία -ας ἡ friendly, allied

φιλικόν –οῦ τό friendly

χάλκωμα –ματος τό bronze item

Χειρίσοφος –ου ὁ Chrisophus

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Reading Passages: Classical by Wilfred E. Major and Michael Laughy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.