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37 Reading Passages: Classical

Reading Passages

 

Assignment

1. Read the entire passage aloud in Greek.

2. Vocabulary and commentary is provided for each verse. For words that do not appear in the vocabulary, please use your dictionary.

3. Translate the passage. As you translate the sentences, pay careful attention to words that go together, such as prepositional phrases and relative clauses. Breaking the sentences up into logical units is oftentimes a better first approach than attempting to translate all the words in succession.

To download this assignment as a pdf, click here: AGE Readings 12.

 

Classical Readings

In his study of the reproduction of living things, Aristotle takes a moment to discuss the different ways we use the term “from”.

ἐπεὶ δὲ πολλαχῶς γίγνεται ἄλλο ἐξ ἄλλου—ἕτερον γὰρ τρόπον ὡς ἐξ ἡμέρας φαμὲν νὺξ γίγνεται καὶ ἐκ παιδὸς ἀνήρ, ὅτι τόδε μετὰ τόδε· ἄλλον δὲ τρόπον ὡς ἐκ χαλκοῦ ἀνδριὰς καὶ ἐκ ξύλου κλίνη καὶ τἆλλα ὅσα ὡς ἐξ ὕλης γίγνεσθαι τὰ γιγνόμενα λέγομεν, ἔκ τινος ἐνυπάρχοντος καὶ σχηματισθέντος τὸ ὅλον ἐστίν. ἕτερον δὲ τρόπον ὡς ἐκ μουσικοῦ ἄμουσος καὶ ὡς ἐξ ὑγιοῦς κάμνων καὶ ὅλως ὡς τὸ ἐναντίον ἐκ τοῦ ἐναντίου. ἔτι δὲ παρὰ ταῦτα ὡς Ἐπίχαρμος ποιεῖ τὴν ἐποικοδόμησιν, ἐκ τῆς διαβολῆς ἡ λοιδορία, ἐκ δὲ ταύτης ἡ μάχη· ταῦτα δὲ πάντα ἔκ τινος ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς κινήσεως. τῶν δὲ τοιούτων ἐνίων μὲν ἐν αὐτοῖς ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς κινήσεώς ἐστιν οἷον καὶ ἐν τοῖς νῦν εἰρημένοις (μέρος γάρ τι ἡ διαβολὴ τῆς πάσης ταραχῆς ἐστιν), ἐνίων δ’ ἔξω οἷον αἱ τέχναι τῶν δημιουργουμένων καὶ ὁ λύχνος τῆς καιομένης οἰκίας.

Aristotle Generation of Animals 724a20-35

Sentence One

ἐπεὶ δὲ πολλαχῶς γίγνεται ἄλλο ἐξ ἄλλου—ἕτερον γὰρ τρόπον ὡς ἐξ ἡμέρας φαμὲν νὺξ γίγνεται καὶ ἐκ παιδὸς ἀνήρ, ὅτι τόδε μετὰ τόδε·

Vocabulary:

ἄλλο –ου τό (adj) other

ἕτερον –ου τό (adj) different

πολλαχῶς (adv) in many ways

τρόπος –ου ὁ way

Comments:

ἄλλο ἐξ ἄλλου: “an other from an other.” In English, we would say “one thing from another.”

ὅτι τόδε μετὰ τόδε: supply in this clause the verb ἐστί.

 

Sentence Two

ἄλλον δὲ τρόπον ὡς ἐκ χαλκοῦ ἀνδριὰς καὶ ἐκ ξύλου κλίνη καὶ τἆλλα ὅσα ὡς ἐξ ὕλης γίγνεσθαι τὰ γιγνόμενα λέγομεν, ἔκ τινος ἐνυπάρχοντος καὶ σχηματισθέντος τὸ ὅλον ἐστίν.

Vocabulary:

ἀνδριάς –άντος ὁ image of a man; statue

γιγνόμενον –ον τό something born

ἐνυπάρχον –οντος τό pre-existing

κλίνη –ης ἡ bed, couch

ὅλον –ου τό whole

ὅσον –ου τό all that, all which

σχηματισθέν –έντος τό shaped

ὕλη –ης ἡ material

χαλκός -οῦ ὁ bronze

Comments:

ὡς: Translate as “how.”

τἆλλα: Note the accents! τἆλλα = τὰ ἄλλα. This is an example of crasis, in which a vowel or diphthong that ends a word is contracted with a vowel or diphthong that begins the following word. The result is that the two words are now pronounced as one. Note that the smooth breathing of the second word is preserved in the contraction, which makes crasis easy to spot.

 

Sentence Three

ἕτερον δὲ τρόπον ὡς ἐκ μουσικοῦ ἄμουσος καὶ ὡς ἐξ ὑγιοῦς κάμνων καὶ ὅλως ὡς τὸ ἐναντίον ἐκ τοῦ ἐναντίου.

Vocabulary:

ἄμουσος –ου ὁ unmusical, inartistic

ἐνάντιον –ου τό opposite

κάμνων –οντος ὁ sick

μουσικός -οῦ ὁ musical, artistic

ὅλως wholly, in all ways

ὑγιοῦς (gen sg) ὁ healthy

Comments:

For this phrase, supply the verb ἐστί.

 

Sentence Four

ἔτι δὲ παρὰ ταῦτα ὡς Ἐπίχαρμος ποιεῖ τὴν ἐποικοδόμησιν, ἐκ τῆς διαβολῆς ἡ λοιδορία, ἐκ δὲ ταύτης ἡ μάχη· ταῦτα δὲ πάντα ἔκ τινος ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς κινήσεως.

Vocabulary:

διαβολή -ῆς ἡ slander

Ἐπίχαρμος –ου ὁ Epicharmus (a playwright and philosopher from Sicily)

ἐποικοδόμησις –εως ἡ build-up

κίνησις –εως ἡ movement

λοιδορία –ας ἡ a screaming fight

 

 

Comments:

ἐκ δὲ ταύτης: What is the antecedent of ταύτης?

 

Sentence Five

τῶν δὲ τοιούτων ἐνίων μὲν ἐν αὐτοῖς ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς κινήσεώς ἐστιν οἷον καὶ ἐν τοῖς νῦν εἰρημένοις (μέρος γάρ τι ἡ διαβολὴ τῆς πάσης ταραχῆς ἐστιν), ἐνίων δ’ ἔξω οἷον αἱ τέχναι τῶν δημιουργουμένων καὶ ὁ λύχνος τῆς καιομένης οἰκίας.

Vocabulary:

δημιουργούμενον –ου τό something crafted

εἰρημένον –ου τό something mentioned

ἔνιοι -ων οἱ some

ἔξω outside

καιομένη –ης ἡ burning

λύχνος –ου ὁ torch

οἷον for example

ταραχή -ῆς ἡ trouble

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Reading Passages: Classical by Wilfred E. Major and Michael Laughy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.