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27 Reading Passages: Biblical

Reading Passages

 

Assignment

1. Read the passages aloud in Greek.

2. Vocabulary and commentary is provided for each passage. For words that do not appear in the vocabulary, please use your dictionary.

3. Translate the passages. As you translate the sentences, pay careful attention to words that go together, such as prepositional phrases and relative clauses. Breaking the sentences up into logical units is oftentimes a better first approach than attempting to translate all the words in succession.

To download this assignment as a pdf, click here: AGE Readings 9.

 

Biblical Reading

1. Jesus gives an analogy for the gifts of the Father:

ἢ τίς ἐστιν ἐξ ὑμῶν ἄνθρωπος, ὃν αἰτήσει ὁ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ ἄρτον—μὴ λίθον ἐπιδώσει αὐτῷ; ἢ καὶ ἰχθὺν αἰτήσει—μὴ ὄφιν ἐπιδώσει αὐτῷ;

ἄνθρωπος (nom. sg.) ὁ person

ἄρτον (acc. sg.) ὁ bread

ἐπιδίδωμι give to

ἰχθύν (acc. sg.) ὁ fish

λίθον (acc. sg.) ὁ stone

ὄφιν (acc. sg.) ἡ snake

υἱός (nom. sg.) ὁ son

ὑμῶν (gen. pl.) y’all

Mt. 7:9-10

 

2. After foretelling the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, Jesus gives a warning about the future. “Many will come in my name” (πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐλεύσονται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου), saying

Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ Χριστός, καὶ πολλοὺς πλανήσουσιν. μελλήσετε δὲ ἀκούειν πολέμους καὶ ἀκοὰς πολέμων.

ἀκοάς (acc. pl.) ἡ rumor

ἐγώ (nom. sg.) I

πλανάω, -ήσω lead astray, mislead

πολέμων, πολέμους (gen. and acc. pl.) ὁ war

πολλούς (acc. pl.) ὁ  many

Χριστός (nom. sg.) ὁ anointed

Mt. 24:5-6

 

3. Gabriel foretells John the Baptist to the priest Zechariah:

καὶ ἡ γυνή σου Ἐλισάβετ γεννήσει υἱόν σοι, καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννην.

γεννάω, -ήσω beget, bring forth, bear

γυνή (nom. sg.) ἡ wife, woman

σου (gen. sg.) σοι (dat. sg.) you

υἱόν (acc. sg.) ὁ son

Lk. 1:13

 

4. Jesus initially refuses his brothers’ call to appear at the Feast of the Tabernacles:

λέγει οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ἐμὸς οὔπω πάρεστιν, ὁ δὲ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερος πάντοτέ ἐστιν ἕτοιμος. οὐ δύναται ὁ κόσμος μισεῖν ὑμᾶς, ἐμὲ δὲ μισεῖ, ὅτι ἐγὼ μαρτυρῶ περὶ αὐτοῦ ὅτι τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ πονηρά ἐστιν.

δύναται (3rd sg. pres. indic. mid.) can, be able to

ἐμέ (acc. sg.) me

ἐμός (nom. sg.) ὁ my

ἔργα (nom./acc. pl.) τό work, deed

ἕτοιμος (nom. sg.) ὁ ready

Ἰησοῦς (nom. sg.) ὁ Jesus

καιρός (nom. sg.) ὁ the (right) time

κόσμος (nom. sg.) ὁ world

μαρτυρέω bear witness

οὔπω not yet

πάντοτε all the time

πονηρά (nom./acc. pl.) τό wicked

ὑμᾶς (acc. pl.) y’all

ὑμέτερος (nom. sg.) ὁ y’all’s

Jn. 7:6-7

Notes:

Translate Ὁ καιρὸς ὁ ἐμὸς as though it reads Ὁ ἐμὸς καιρὸς, and ὁ δὲ καιρὸς ὁ ὑμέτερος as though it reads ὁ δὲ ὑμέτερος καιρὸς.

The antecedent of αὐτοῦ in the ὅτι clause is κόσμος.

 

5. Jesus has been speaking of himself as a good shepherd:

διὰ τοῦτό με ὁ πατὴρ ἀγαπᾷ ὅτι ἐγὼ τίθημι τὴν ψυχήν μου, ἵνα πάλιν λάβω αὐτήν. οὐδεὶς αἴρει αὐτὴν ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ, ἀλλ’ ἐγὼ τίθημι αὐτὴν ἀπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ.

ἐγώ (nom. sg.) I

ἐμαυτοῦ (gen. sg.) myself

ἐμοῦ (gen. sg.) me

ἵνα so that

λάβω (aorist subjunctive) < λαμβάνω mood required by purpose construction but does not affect meaning; “I can take”

με (acc. sg.) μου (gen. sg.) me

οὐδείς –ένος ὁ no one

πάλιν back, again

πατήρ, πατρός ὁ father

τοῦτο (nom./acc. sg.) τό this

ψυχήν (acc. sg.) ἡ soul, life

Jn. 10:17-18

 

6. From Jesus’ farewell to his disciples:

ἔτι μικρὸν καὶ ὁ κόσμος με οὐκέτι θεωρεῖ, ὑμεῖς δὲ θεωρεῖτέ με, ὅτι ἐγὼ ζῶ καὶ ὑμεῖς ζήσετε.

ἔτι still

θεωρέω see, look at

κόσμος (nom. sg.) ὁ world

με (acc. sg.) me

μικρόν (adv.) a little

οὐκέτι no longer

ὑμεῖς (nom. pl.) y’all

Jn. 14:19

 

7. From the sentencing of Jesus:

λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Τὸν βασιλέα ὑμῶν σταυρώσω; ἀπεκρίθησαν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς, Οὐκ ἔχομεν βασιλέα εἰ μὴ Καίσαρα.

ἀπεκρίθησαν (3rd pl.) “answered”

ἀρχιερεῖς (nom. pl.) ὁ high priests

βασιλέα (acc. sg.) ὁ king

ἔχω have

Καῖσαρ –ρος ὁ Caesar

σταυρόω crucify

ὑμῶν (gen. pl.) y’all’s

Jn. 19:15

Note:

In translating the εἰ clause, supply the verb ἔχομεν, which is understood from the previous clause.

 

8. In discussion of the internal conflict between spirit and flesh, Paul says,

οὐ γὰρ ὃ θέλω τοῦτο πράσσω, ἀλλ’ ὃ μισῶ τοῦτο ποιῶ. εἰ δὲ ὃ οὐ θέλω τοῦτο ποιῶ, σύμφημι τῷ νόμῳ ὅτι καλός.

καλός (nom. sg.) ὁ beautiful, good + ἐστι (understood as repeated from previous verse)

νόμῳ (dat. sg.) ὁ law

σύμφημι agree with (+ dat.)

τοῦτο (nom./acc. sg.) τό this

Rom 7:15-16

Notes:

There are three relative clauses in this sentence. In each, the antecedent of the relative pronoun ὅ, is τοῦτο. In the  ὅτι καλός clause, supply ἐστι, which is understood from the previous clause. καλός is an adjective describing the law.

 

9. Paul emphasizes equality even as some Christians differ in certain practices:

οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἡμῶν ἑαυτῷ ζῇ, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἑαυτῷ ἀποθνῄσκει· ἐάν τε γὰρ ζῶμεν, τῷ κυρίῳ ζῶμεν.

ἑαυτῷ (dat. sg.) himself

ἐάν ~ εἰ

ἡμῶν (gen. pl.) our, of us

κυρίῳ (dat. sg.) ὁ Lord

οὐδείς –ένος ὁ no one

Ro. 14:7-8

 

10. Addressing a troubled church, Paul offers his service in terms of completing the goal of Christ’s suffering:

νῦν χαίρω ἐν τοῖς παθήμασιν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, καὶ ἀνταναπληρῶ τὰ ὑστερήματα τῶν θλίψεων τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου ὑπὲρ τοῦ σώματος αὐτοῦ, ὅ ἐστιν ἡ ἐκκλησία,…

ἀνταναπληρόω fill up in place

ἐκκλησία (nom. sg.) ἡ church

θλίψεων (gen. pl.) ἡ distress, affliction

μοῦ (gen. sg.) me

νῦν now

πάθημα –ματος τό suffering

σάρξ σαρκός ἡ flesh

ὑμῶν (gen. pl.) y’all

ὑστέρημα –ματος τό lack

Χριστοῦ (gen. sg.) ὁ anointed

Col. 1:24

 

11. From the description of the plague of locusts:

καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις ζητήσουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι τὸν θάνατον καὶ οὐ μὴ εὑρήσουσιν αὐτόν, καὶ ἐπιθυμήσουσιν ἀποθανεῖν καὶ φεύγει ὁ θάνατος ἀπ’ αὐτῶν.

ἄνθρωποι (nom. pl.) ὁ person

ἀποθανεῖν (aorist inf. act.) die

ἐπιθυμέω desire for, want to

ἡμέραις (dat. pl.) ἡ days

θάνατος (nom. sg.) θάνατον (acc. sg.) ὁ death

φεύγω flee

Rev 9:6

 

12. From the prophecies of Ezekiel: The Lord declares some of his future intentions for Israel:

(17.) καὶ ὑμεῖς, πρόβατα, τάδε λέγει κύριος κύριος

Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ διακρινῶ ἀνὰ μέσον προβάτου καὶ προβάτου, κριῶν καὶ τράγων· …

(20.) διὰ τοῦτο τάδε λέγει κύριος κύριος

Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ διακρινῶ ἀνὰ μέσον προβάτου ἰσχυροῦ καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον προβάτου ἀσθενοῦς. …

(22.) καὶ σώσω τὰ πρόβατά μου, … καὶ κρινῶ ἀνὰ μέσον κριοῦ πρὸς κριόν.

(23.) καὶ ἀναστήσω ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς ποιμένα ἕνα καὶ ποιμανεῖ αὐτούς, τὸν δοῦλόν μου Δαυιδ, καὶ ἔσται αὐτῶν ποιμήν·

(24.) καὶ ἐγὼ κύριος ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς θεόν, καὶ Δαυιδ ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν ἄρχων· ἐγὼ κύριος ἐλάλησα.

(25.) καὶ διαθήσομαι τῷ Δαυιδ διαθήκην εἰρήνης καὶ ἀφανιῶ θηρία πονηρὰ ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς, καὶ κατοικήσουσιν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ καὶ ὑπνώσουσιν ἐν τοῖς δρυμοῖς.

(26.) καὶ δώσω αὐτοὺς περικύκλῳ τοῦ ὄρους μου· καὶ δώσω τὸν ὑετὸν ὑμῖν, ὑετὸν εὐλογίας.

(27.) καὶ τὰ ξύλα τὰ ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ δώσει τὸν καρπὸν αὐτῶν, καὶ ἡ γῆ δώσει τὴν ἰσχὺν αὐτῆς, καὶ κατοικήσουσιν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς αὐτῶν ἐν ἐλπίδι εἰρήνης, …

(28.) …καὶ κατοικήσουσιν ἐν ἐλπίδι, …

(29.) καὶ ἀναστήσω αὐτοῖς φυτὸν εἰρήνης,…

(30.) καὶ γνώσονται ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι κύριος ὁ θεὸς αὐτῶν, … λέγει κύριος.

(31.) πρόβατά μου καὶ πρόβατα ποιμνίου μού ἐστε, καὶ ἐγὼ κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὑμῶν, λέγει κύριος κύριος.

 

ἀνὰ μέσον between (+ gen.)

ἀνίστημι –ήσω stand up, appoint

ἀσθενοῦς (gen. sg.) τό weak

ἀφανίζω -ιῶ banish

γῆ (nom. sg.) γῆς (gen. sg.) ἡ earth, land

γνώσονται (3rd pl.) will know

διαθήκην (acc. sg.) ἡ covenant

διαθήσομαι (1st sg.) will arrange

διακρίνω –κρινῶ judge

δοῦλον (acc. sg.) ὁ slave

δρυμοῖς (dat. pl.) ὁ forest

ἐγώ (nom. sg.) I

εἰρήνης (gen. sg.) ἡ peace

ἐλάλησα (1st sg.) spoke

ἕνα (acc. sg.) ὁ one

ἐρήμῳ (dat. sg.) ἡ desert

ἔσομαι (1st sg.) ἔσται (3rd sg.) will be

εὐλογίας (gen. sg.) ἡ blessing

θεόν (acc. sg.) ὁ god

θηρία (nom./acc. pl.) τό beasts

ἰδοῦ Look! Behold!

ἰσχύν (acc. sg.) ἡ strength

ἰσχυροῦ (gen. sg.) τό strong

καρπόν (acc. sg.) ὁ fruit

κατοικέω –ήσω settle

κριοῦ (gen. sg.) κριόν (acc. sg.) κριῶν (gen. pl.) ὁ ram

κύριος (nom. sg.) ὁ lord

μέσῳ (dat. sg.) τό middle

μου my

ξύλα (nom./acc. pl.) τό woods

ὄρους (gen. sg.) τό mountain

πεδίῳ (dat. sg.) ὁ plain

περικύκλῳ (dat. sg.) ὁ surrounding area

πονηρά (nom./acc. pl.) τό wicked

πρόβατα (nom./acc. pl.) προβάτου (gen. sg.) τό sheep

ποιμαίνω ποιμανῶ shepherd

ποιμήν –ένος ὁ shepherd

ποιμνίου (gen. sg.) τό flock

τοῦτο (nom./acc. sg.) τό this

τράγων (gen. pl.) ὁ goat

ὑετὸν (acc. sg.) ὁ shower

ὑμεῖς (nom. pl.) ὑμῖν (dat. pl.) you, y’all

ὑμῶν your, y’all’s

ὑπνόω –ώσω sleep

φυτόν (nom./acc. sg.) τό growth

LXX Ezekiel 34:17-31

 

13. The Lord intends to destroy the city of Sodom for its wickedness, but Abraham haggles.

Abraham says:

ἐὰν ὦσιν πεντήκοντα δίκαιοι ἐν τῇ πόλει, ἀπολεῖς αὐτούς; οὐκ ἀνήσεις πάντα τὸν τόπον ἕνεκεν τῶν πεντήκοντα δικαίων, ἐὰν ὦσιν ἐν αὐτῇ;

The Lord answers:

Ἐὰν εὕρω ἐν Σοδομοις πεντήκοντα δικαίους ἐν τῇ πόλει, ἀφήσω πάντα τὸν τόπον δι’ αὐτούς.

Abraham says:

ἐὰν δὲ ἐλαττονωθῶσιν οἱ πεντήκοντα δίκαιοι πέντε, ἀπολεῖς ἕνεκεν τῶν πέντε πᾶσαν τὴν πόλιν;

The Lord answers:

Οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσω, ἐὰν εὕρω ἐκεῖ τεσσαράκοντα πέντε.

Abraham says:

Ἐὰν δὲ εὑρεθῶσιν ἐκεῖ τεσσαράκοντα;

The Lord answers:

Οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσω ἕνεκεν τῶν τεσσαράκοντα.

Abraham says:

ἐὰν δὲ εὑρεθῶσιν ἐκεῖ τριάκοντα;

The Lord answers:

Οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσω, ἐὰν εὕρω ἐκεῖ τριάκοντα.

Abraham says:

ἐὰν δὲ εὑρεθῶσιν ἐκεῖ εἴκοσι;

The Lord answers:

Οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσω ἕνεκεν τῶν εἴκοσι.

Abraham says:

ἐὰν δὲ εὑρεθῶσιν ἐκεῖ δέκα;

The Lord answers:

Οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσω ἕνεκεν τῶν δέκα.

 

ἀνίημι, ἀνήσω throw up, let go

δέκα ten

δίκαιοι (nom. pl.) δικαίων (gen. pl.) δικαίους (acc. pl.) ὁ just, righteous

ἐάν ~ εἰ

εἴκοσι twenty

ἐκεῖ there

ἐλαττονωθῶσιν (3rd pl.) be reduced

ἕνεκεν because of

εὑρεθῶσιν (3rd. pl.) be found

εὕρω ~ εὑρίσκω find

πάντα (acc. sg.) ὁ entire

πᾶσαν (acc. sg.) ἡ entire

πέντε five

πεντήκοντα fifty

πόλει (dat. sg.) πόλιν (acc. sg.) ἡ city

τεσσαράκοντα forty

τόπον (acc. sg.) ὁ place

τριάκοντα thirty

ὦσιν ~ εἰσιν

Selections from LXX Gen 18:24-32.

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Reading Passages: Biblical by Wilfred E. Major and Michael Laughy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.