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15 The Future Tense

2012.26.0325 (8-50)

A decree concerning relations with Aphytis, a city in Chalkidike. 426/5 B.C. The decree was later re-used in the Byzantine period as threshold for a door. Athenian Agora Excavations.

 


The Future Tense

So far, we have only seen verbs in the PRESENT TENSE. This lesson introduces the FUTURE TENSE. As with the present tense, we begin building a Greek verb by starting with the VERB STEM, which tells us the action that the verb describes:

λυ– “loosen, destroy”

δεικ– “show”

 

The stem needs a marker that says the verb is in the future tense. The future tense marker for all verbs is –σ-. So now the stem looks (and sounds) like this:

λυ + σ = λυσwill loosen (future tense stem)

δεικ + σδειξwill show (future tense stem)

 

Remember that Greek has two distinct sets of inflectional endings:

μι verbs

ω verbs

 

ALL VERBS, regardless of their present tense conjugation, use THEMATIC (-ω verb) endings in the future tense. In other words, while δείκνυμι, for example, is a –μι conjugation in the present active, it uses the same –ω conjugation personal endings in the future active that a verb like λύω does.

 

Putting it all together, the Future Indicative Active of λύω is as follows (S 383; GPH p. 75):

λύσω  I will loosen

λύσομεν we will loosen

λύσεις you will loosen

λύσετε you all will loosen

λύσει (s)he, it will loosen

λύσουσι they will loosen

The Future Active Infinitive: λύσειν

 

 

The Future Indicative Active of δείκνυμι is as follows:

δείξω  I will show

δείξομεν we will show

δείξεις you will show

δείξετε you all will show

δείξει (s)he, it will show

δείξουσι they will show

The Future Active Infinitive: δείξειν

 


Verbs: Principal Parts

Vocabulary entries for verbs in a Greek dictionary are listed alphabetically by the form of the 1st person singular present indicative active, e.g. δείκνυμι or λύω. Because adding –σ– to the verb stem can result in some unexpected forms, vocabulary entries also normally include the 1st person singular future indicative active as well.

These two forms are called PRINCIPAL PARTS, because they are principal forms that indicate how other tenses are formed. The following are verbs from the vocabulary of previous lessons, now with their second principal part – the 1st person singular future indicative active – added.

Note: Some verbs never occur in the future indicative active. In addition, verbs of the –ω conjugation that use the –ν– in the present tense rarely occur in the future indicative active, or are irregular in some way. If a verb from a previous lessons is not repeated here, it is because it does not occur in the future indicative active, or its form is covered in later lessons.

 

Principal Parts: –ω Verbs

 

βουλεύω, βουλεύσω deliberate, resolve

θύω, θύσω sacrifice

κελεύω, κελεύσω order

κλαίω, κλαύσω cry out

κωλύω, κωλύσω prevent

λύω, λύσω loosen, destroy

ἀπολύω, ἀπολύσω release, divorce, forgive

παύω, παύσω stop

περισσεύω, περισσεύσω be left over, increase, exceed

πιστεύω, πιστεύσω trust, rely on, believe in (+ dat.)

πορεύω, πορεύσω carry; (mid.) go, march

φύω, φύσω produce

 

Principal Parts: –μι Verbs

 

(δεικ-) δείκνυμι, δείξω show

(μιγ-) μίγνυμι, μίξω mix

(δω-) δίδωμι, δώσω give

ἀποδίδωμι, ἀποδώσω give back

παραδίδωμι, παραδώσω hand over, deliver

(-) ἵημι, ἥσω  throw

ἀφίημι, ἀφήσω send forth; let go, allow

(στη-) ἵστημι, στήσω stand

ἀνίστημι, ἀναστήσω raise, appoint

καθίστημι, καταστήσω set down, establish

παρίστημι, παραστήσω be present

(θη-) τίθημι, θήσω put, make

ἐπιτίθημι, ἐπιθήσω put on

προστίθημι, προσθήσω add to

(φη-) φημί, φήσω say

 

– τὸ τέλος –


Key Terms and Concepts

  • FORMATION OF FUTURE TENSE STEM
  • PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A VERB

Vocabulary

-ω Verbs

βουλεύω, βουλεύσω deliberate, resolve

θύω, θύσω sacrifice

κελεύω, κελεύσω order

κλαίω, κλαύσω cry out

κωλύω, κωλύσω prevent

λύω, λύσω loosen, destroy

ἀπολύω, ἀπολύσω release, divorce, forgive

παύω, παύσω stop

περισσεύω, περισσεύσω be left over, increase, exceed

πιστεύω, πιστεύσω trust, rely on, believe in (+ dat.)

πορεύω, πορεύσω carry; (mid.) go, march

φύω, φύσω produce

 

-μι Verbs

(δεικ-) δείκνυμι, δείξω show

(μιγ-) μίγνυμι, μίξω mix

(δω-) δίδωμι, δώσω give

ἀποδίδωμι, ἀποδώσω give back

παραδίδωμι, παραδώσω hand over, deliver

(ἥ-) ἵημι, ἥσω  throw

ἀφίημι, ἀφήσω send forth; let go, allow

(στη-) ἵστημι, στήσω stand

ἀνίστημι, ἀναστήσω raise, appoint

καθίστημι, καταστήσω set down, establish

παρίστημι, παραστήσω present

(θη-) τίθημι, θήσω put, make

ἐπιτίθημι, ἐπιθήσω put on

προστίθημι, προσθήσω add to

(φη-) φημί, φήσω say

 

Exercises

Ι. Conjugate the following verbs in the FUTURE, active, indicative in all persons and numbers, as well as in the infinitive:

  1. δίδωμι
  2. ἵστημι
  3. λύω
  4. πιστεύω

 

II. Translate the following sentences into Greek.

1. Who will sacrifice these things to the gods?

2. Either you will drive the leaders out of the fatherland, or I will.

3. Someone is walking into the light, but we will stand and prevent them.

4. They will stop the contests; they do not trust anyone, because of money.

5. She will hear from the mouths of children things that will raise hope.

Readings

Biblical sentences: AGE Readings 7.

 

License

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The Future Tense by Wilfred E. Major and Michael Laughy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.